Microcápsulas y microesferas: una visión a la caracterización integral y aplicación para la liberación de medicamentos biotecnológicos


  • Elvia Zárate-Hernández Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Farmacología, Avenida Dr. Manuel Nava núm. 6, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México, C. P. 78210.
  • Rosa Alejandra Hernández-Esquivel Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Farmacología, Avenida Dr. Manuel Nava núm. 6, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México, C. P. 78210.
  • José Trinidad Pérez-Urizar Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Farmacología, Avenida Dr. Manuel Nava núm. 6, Zona Universitaria, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México, C. P. 78210.



Palabras clave:

medicamento biotecnológico, microesferas, estabilidad proteica


Los microacarreadores basados en microcápsulas y microesferas han sido ampliamente estudiados y ensayados para controlar la liberación de medicamentos biotecnológicos (MB), disminuyendo la dosificación o modificando la vía de administración. Los métodos para la obtención de microacarreadores, son complejos y variados, por lo que es necesario determinar los requisitos mínimos que debe cumplir el sistema. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer las principales características que deben ser evaluadas en los microacarreadores para garantizar que la actividad biológica de los medicamentos biotecnológicos permanezca intacta a través del proceso de microencapsulación y, por lo tanto, que la seguridad del MB (desarrollo de reacciones inmunes) se mantenga inalterada. Las características a evaluar de un microacarreador deben describir las propiedades del material, tamaño y forma del sistema, carga de la partícula, funcionalidad, eficiencia de la microencapsulación y la cinética de liberación. Mientras que la integridad de los MB puede ser evaluada a partir de parámetros críticos de calidad: estructura y función biológica del MB, pureza del producto, presencia de agregados de alto peso molecular, estructura de orden superior y ensayos de actividad biológica. La caracterización de los microacarreadores debe enfocarse en la seguridad del biopolímero y proteínas ensayadas.


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