Caracterización de los determinantes sociales de la salud del envejecimiento activo en estudios enfocados a la calidad de vida: mapeo sistemático

Autores/as

  • Ana Paulina Campos-Tapia Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario del Sur, Departamento de Promoción, Preservación y Desarrollo de la Salud, Ciudad Guzmán, Jalisco, México. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0406-9537
  • Rosa Martha Meda-Lara Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Departamento de Psicología Básica, Sierra Nevada núm. 950, colonia Independencia, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. C. P. 44340. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2260-3385
  • Beatriz Adriana Corona-Figueroa Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara, Departamento de Humanidades y Desarrollo Humano, Zapopan, Jalisco, México. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5471-6440

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29059/cienciauat.v17i1.1562

Palabras clave:

determinantes sociales de la salud, envejecimiento activo, calidad de vida

Resumen

El aumento demográfico de adultos mayores se está presentando acompañado de condiciones socioeconómicas y de salud desfavorables, que afectan su calidad de vida. Esta situación puede paliarse a través del marco del envejecimiento activo, el cual aporta lineamientos alternativos que pueden resultar eficaces para contrarrestarlos. La Organización Mundial de la Salud establece que el envejecimiento activo tiene seis Determinantes Sociales de la Salud (DSS) que han sido abordados desde diferentes áreas por la comunidad científica. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar y caracterizar el tipo de estudios enfocados a la calidad de vida, desde el envejecimiento activo, y clasificarlos de acuerdo con los DSS. Se revisaron las bases de datos Ebscohost, Scopus, Oxford, Redalyc y Sage Journals. Los descriptores utilizados fueron “envejecimiento activo” y “calidad de vida”, en inglés y español. La búsqueda del mapeo sistemático comprendió enero 2015 a marzo 2022. Se localizaron 91 artículos en los que se evaluó la calidad de vida, desde la perspectiva del envejecimiento activo y la mayoría (81.3 %) fueron estudios transversales. Se identificaron 3 intervenciones psicológicas, con evaluación antes y después de las sesiones, abordando los DSS relacionados con los factores personales, como salud psicológica, percepción positiva con la actividad física y función cognitiva. Así mismo, los factores conductuales, como estilos de vida para la prevención de riesgo de caídas y mejora de la vida en general, que podrían condicionar la calidad de vida. El principal alcance temático de los estudios fue la vinculación existente entre la calidad de vida y los DSS relacionados con los factores personales y con el entorno social. Se requieren más estudios interdisciplinarios que ayuden a generar políticas públicas que impacten favorablemente en este sector poblacional.

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Publicado

2022-07-21

Cómo citar

Campos-Tapia, A. P., Meda-Lara, R. M., & Corona-Figueroa, B. A. (2022). Caracterización de los determinantes sociales de la salud del envejecimiento activo en estudios enfocados a la calidad de vida: mapeo sistemático. CienciaUAT, 17(1), 17-34. https://doi.org/10.29059/cienciauat.v17i1.1562

Número

Sección

Humanidades y Ciencias de la Conducta