Integración, involucramiento y retroalimentación como antecedentes de la reflexividad en una dependencia gubernamental


  • Aurora Irma Máynez-Guaderrama Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial y Manufactura, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México.
  • María Marisela Vargas-Salgado Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Administración, Departamento de Ciencias Administrativas, Av. Universidad y Av. Heroico Colegio Militar s/n, zona Chamizal, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, C. P. 32300.


Palabras clave:

reflexividad, integración, involucramiento, retroalimentación, gobierno


Las organizaciones del sector público tienen como reto dar respuesta y solucionar las necesidades de la sociedad. Ante ese desafío, su gestión debe indagar la eficiencia de sus tareas. En esta vertiente, la reflexividad es una pieza clave, fundamental para el desempeño de los equipos de trabajo y útil para evaluar, buscar soluciones y tomar decisiones. El objetivo del presente estudio fue establecer, en una dependencia del gobierno mexicano, si la integración, el involucramiento y la retroalimentación, influyen en la reflexividad. El diseño fue cuantitativo, no experimental, transversal y causal. Se encuestó a 108 empleados. Los datos se recolectaron con un cuestionario auto administrado y como técnica de análisis se usó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales con mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS). Los resultados revelan que la integración, el involucramiento y la retroalimentación en esa dependencia tienen un efecto favorable y significativo en la reflexividad, reflejado en mayor medida en la búsqueda de acuerdos para alcanzar las metas laborales y la ejecución competente del trabajo; siendo la retroalimentación la variable de mayor influencia.

Biografía del autor/a

Aurora Irma Máynez-Guaderrama, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial y Manufactura, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México.

Profesora-Investigadora, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Instituto de Ingeniería y tecnología. Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial y Manufactura. Av. del Charro no.450 Nte. Col. Partido Romero CP32310. Correo electrónico: CVU 396543. ORCID iD 0000-0001-8174-3807. Miembro del SIN, nivel I.

María Marisela Vargas-Salgado, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Administración, Departamento de Ciencias Administrativas, Av. Universidad y Av. Heroico Colegio Militar s/n, zona Chamizal, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, C. P. 32300.

Profesora-Investigadora, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Administración. Departamento de Ciencias Administrativas. Av. Universidad y Av. Heroico Colegio Militar S/N Zona Chamizal C.P. 32300. Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Correo electrónico:, teléfono 656 180-40-6. CVU 398175. ORCID iD 0000-0002-9670-5982. Miembro del SIN, nivel candidato.


Anderson, J. C. and Gerbing, D. W. (1982). Some methods for respecifying measurement models to obtain unidimensional construct measurement. Journal of Marketing Research. 19(4): 453-460.

Bao, G., Xu, B., and Zhang, Z. (2016). Employees’ trust and their knowledge sharing and integration: the mediating roles of organizational identification and organization-based self-esteem. Knowledge Management Research & Practice. 14(3): 362-375.

Battistelli, A., Montani, F., and Odoardi, C. (2013). The impact of feedback from job and task autonomy in the relationship between dispositional resistance to change and innovative work behaviour. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 22(1): 26-41.

Benson, G. S., Kimmel, M., and Lawler, E. E. (2013). Adoption of employee involvement practices: organizational change issues and insights. En A. B. Shani, W. A. Pasmore, R. W. Woodman, and D. A. Noumair (Eds.), Research in Organizational Change and Development (pp. 233-257). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Breeze, B. and Wiepking, P. (2020). Different drivers: exploring employee involvement in corporate philanthropy. Journal of Business Ethics. 165(3): 453-467.

Brimhall, K. C. (2019). Inclusion is important . . . but how do I include? Examining the effects of leader engagement on inclusion, innovation, job satisfaction, and perceived quality of care in a diverse nonprofit health care organization. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. 48(4): 716-737.

Bryson, J. M., Crosby, B. C., and Bloomberg, L. (2014). Public Value Governance: Moving beyond traditional public administration and the new public management. Public Administration Review. 74(4): 445-456.

Chen, J., Bamberger, P. A., Song, Y., and Vashdi, D. R. (2018). The effects of team reflexivity on psychological well-being in manufacturing teams. Journal of Applied Psychology. 103(4): 443-462.

Chin, W. W. and Newsted, P. R. (1999). Structural equation modeling analysis with small samples using partial least squares. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research (pp. 307-341). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Coeto, M. and Dávila, A. (2000). Efectividad en una dependencia de gobierno mexicana: evidencia para la modernización de la administración pública. Iztapalapa, Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades. 21(48): 119-134.

De-Dreu, C. K. W. (2007). Cooperative outcome interdependence, task reflexivity, and team effectiveness: A motivated information processing perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology. 92(3): 628-638.

De-Janasz, S., Forret, M., Haack, D., and Jonsen, K. (2013). Family status and work attitudes: An investigation in a professional services firm. British Journal of Management. 24(2): 191-210.

De-Jong, B. A. and Elfring, T. (2010). How does trust affect the performance of ongoing teams? The mediating role of reflexivity, monitoring, and effort. Academy of Management Journal. 53(3): 535-549.

Doherty, M. E. and Balzer, W. K. (1988). Cognitive feedback. In B. Brehmer and C. R. B. Joyce (Eds.), Advances in Psychology (pp. 163-197). North-Holland: Elsevier.

Dreu, C. K. D. (2002). Team innovation and team effectiveness: The importance of minority dissent and reflexivity. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 11(3): 285-298.

Farnese, M. L., Fida, R., and Livi, S. (2016). Reflexivity and flexibility: Complementary routes to innovation? Journal of Management & Organization. 22(03): 404-419.

Fornell, C. and Bookstein, F. L. (1982). Two structural equation models: LISREL and PLS applied to consumer exitvoice theory. Journal of Marketing Research. 19(4): 440-452.

Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research. 18(1): 39-50.

Fu, N., Flood, P. C., Rousseau, D. M., and Morris, T. (2021). Resolving the individual helping and objective job performance dilemma: The moderating effect of team reflexivity. Journal of Business Research. 129: 236-243.

Gabelica, C., van-den-Bossche, P., Segers, M., and Gijselaers, W. (2014). Dynamics of team reflexivity after feedback. Frontline Learning Research. 2(3): 64-91.

Gefen, D. and Straub, D. (2005). A practical guide to factorial validity using PLS-Graph: Tutorial and annotated example. Communications of the Association for Information Systems. 16(1): 91-109.

Glew, D. J., O’Leary-Kelly, A. M., Griffin, R. W., and van-Fleet, D. D. (1995). Participation in organizations: A preview of the issues and proposed framework for future analysis. Journal of Management. 21(3): 395-421.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. F., Tatham, R. L. y Black, W. C. (1999). Análisis multivariante (Quinta edición). Madrid: Prentice Hall Iberia. 828 Pp.

Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., and Sarstedt, M. (2014). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). United States of America: Sage publications. 307 Pp.

Hattie, J. and Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research. 77(1): 81-112.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 43(1): 115-135.

Hofhuis, J., Mensen, M., Ten-Den, L. M., van-den-Berg, A. M., Koopman-Draijer, M., van-Tilburg, M. C., …, and de-Vries, S. (2018). Does functional diversity increase effectiveness of community care teams? The moderating role of shared vision, interaction frequency, and team reflexivity. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 48(10): 535-548.

Hong, S. (2019). A behavioral model of public organizations: Bounded rationality, performance feedback, and negativity bias. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 29(1): 1-17.

IBM (2015). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows (Versión 23.0) [Software de cómputo]. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

Islami, X., Mulolli, E., and Mustafa, N. (2018). Using management by objectives as a performance appraisal tool for employee satisfaction. Future Business Journal. 4(1): 94-108.

Konradt, U., Otte, K. P., Schippers, M. C., and Steenfatt, C. (2016). Reflexivity in teams: A review and new perspectives. The Journal of Psychology. 150(2): 153-174.

Kugler, T., Bornstein, G., Kocher, M. G., and Sutter, M. (2007). Trust between individuals and groups: Groups are less trusting than individuals but just as trustworthy. Journal of Economic Psychology. 28(6): 646-657.

Lawrence, P. and Lorsch, J. (1967). Differentiation and integration in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly. 12(1): 1-47.

Li, C. R., Li, C. X., Lin, C. J., and Liu, J. (2018). The influence of team reflexivity and shared meta-knowledge on the curvilinear relationship between team diversity and team ambidexterity, in Management Decision. [En línea]. Disponible en: Fecha de consulta: 11 de noviembre de 2020.

Ling, Y. L., Kanesan, A. G., and Ismail, F. (2016). Feedback environment and job motivation among the middle leaders of educational organizations. Journal of Education and Training. 3(1): 90-105.

Melhem, Y. S. and Al-Qudah, M. F. (2019). Work engagement: Trust and respect to engage your people. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 12(17): 1-13.

Moynihan, D. P., Nielsen, P. A., and Kroll, A. (2017). Managerial use of performance data by bureaucrats and politicians. In O. James, S. R. Jilke, and G. G. van-Ryzin (Eds.), Experiments in Public Management Research: Challenges and Contributions (pp. 244-269). United Cambridge University Press.

Nadim, M., Fatima, S., Aroos, S., and Hafeez, M. H. (2019). Breach of psychological contract and job involvement: Does organizational cynicism mediates the relationship. Journal of Managerial Sciences. 13(3): 99-104.

Patterson, M. G., West, M. A., Shackleton, V. J., Dawson, J. F., Lawthom, R., Maitlis, S., …, and Wallace, A. M. (2005). Validating the organizational climate measure: links to managerial practices, productivity and innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 26(4): 379-408.

Ramesh, N. and Ravi, A. (2017). Determinants of total employee involvement: a case study of a cutting tool company. International Journal of Business Excellence. 11(2): 221-240.

Reiter-Palmon, R., Kennel, V., Allen, J., and Jones, K. J. (2018). Good Catch! Using Interdisciplinary Teams and Team Reflexivity to Improve Patient Safety. Group & Organization Management. 43(3): 414-439.

Reiter-Palmon, R., Leone, S., Murugavel, V., and Allen, J. A. (2020). Fostering Effective debriefs: The integral role of team reflexivity. In L. M. Annika, A. A. Joseph, and L. W. Nale (Eds.), Managing Meetings in Organizations (pp. 93-109). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited.

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., and Becker, J. M. (2015). SmartPLS 3 (Versión 3.0) [Software de cómputo]. Bönningstedt, Pinneberg: SmartPLS.

Ripamonti, S. C., Galuppo, L., Provasoli, G., and Benozzo, A. (2020). Unmasking Reflexivity in HR Managers During the COVID-19 Lockdown in Italy. Frontiers in Psychology. 11(3270).

Schippers, M. C., Edmondson, A. C., and West, M. A. (2014). Team reflexivity as an antidote to team information-processing failures. Small Group Research. 45(6): 731-769.

Schippers, M. C., West, M. A., and Dawson, J. F. (2012). Team reflexivity and innovation: the moderating role of team context. Journal of Management. 41(3): 769-788.

Seidel, G. and Back, A. (2009). Success factor validation for global ERP programmes. Paper presented at the 17th European Conference on Information Systems, Verona. [En línea]. Disponible en: Fecha de consulta: 3 de diciembre de 2020.

Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research. 78(1): 153-189.

Tioumagneng, A. and Njifen, I. (2019). Employee involvement in the public administrative sector: an exploration of the engagement drivers in Cameroon. International Review of Administrative Sciences. 86(4): 765-781.

Ünal, A. F., Chen, C. C., and Xin, K. R. (2017). Justice climates and management team effectiveness: The central role of group harmony. Management and Organization Review. 13(4): 821-849.

Urbini, F., Callea, A., Chirumbolo, A., Talamo, A., Ingusci, E., and Ciavolino, E. (2018). Team performance in the Italian NHS: the role of reflexivity. Journal of Health Organization and Management. 32(2): 190-205.

Wagenvoort, M. (2020). A plea for team reflexivity in organizations a three-way interaction model with team reflexivity, goal clarity and participative leadership on team performance, en Repositorio Institucional- Universidad de Utrecht. [En línea]. Disponible en: Fecha de consulta: 25 de noviembre de 2020.

Wallace, J. C., Butts, M. M., Johnson, P. D., Stevens, F. G., and Smith, M. B. (2013). A multilevel model of employee innovation: Understanding the effects of regulatory focus, thriving, and employee involvement climate. Journal of Management. 42(4): 982-1004.

Widmer, P. S., Schippers, M. C., and West, M. A. (2009). Recent developments in reflexivity research: A review. Psychology of Everyday Activity. 2(2): 2-11.

Wu, W. Y., Amaya Rivas, A., and Chen, Y. C. (2017). The role of team reflexivity as a mediator between project management skills, task familiarity, procedural justice, and product performance. Journal of Management & Organization. 25(6): 876-895.

Yang, M., Schloemer, H., Zhu, Z., Lin, Y., Chen, W., and Dong, N. (2020). Why and when team reflexivity contributes to team performance: A moderated mediation model. Frontiers in Psychology. 10(3044).

Younas, A., Wang, D., Javed, B., and Zaffar, M. A. (2020). Moving beyond the mechanistic structures: The role of inclusive leadership in developing change-oriented organizational citizenship behaviour. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration. 1(20): 1-11.



Cómo citar

Máynez-Guaderrama, A. I., & Vargas-Salgado, M. M. (2022). Integración, involucramiento y retroalimentación como antecedentes de la reflexividad en una dependencia gubernamental. CienciaUAT, 16(2), 114-125.



Ciencias Sociales