La cabra: selección y hábitos de consumo de plantas nativas en agostadero árido

Autores/as

  • Cecilia Carmela Zapata-Campos Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, carretera Victoria-Mante km 5 s/n, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México, C. P. 87274.
  • Miguel Ángel Mellado-Bosque Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Nutrición Animal, Saltillo, Coahuila, México.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29059/cienciauat.v15i2.1409

Palabras clave:

conducta alimenticia, dieta, componentes nutricionales, consumo, metabolitos secundarios

Resumen

Las cabras habitan regiones áridas como resultado de su adaptación a condiciones extremas. La selección de la dieta es una de las estrategias conductuales que les han permitido evitar deficiencias nutricionales o intoxicaciones aun en condiciones de baja disponibilidad de alimento. Así mismo, el ramoneo, como conducta ingestiva de la especie, les permite seleccionar y obtener plantas con adecuados valores de proteína cruda que favorezcan su desarrollo y supervivencia. También, las cabras se adaptan a las características químicas de las plantas, las cuales desarrollan compuestos bioactivos para evitar ser consumidas. Estos metabolitos secundarios pueden tener efectos antinutricionales y tóxicos así como medicinales o curativos, dependiendo del consumo que tenga el animal. El objetivo de este trabajo fue revisar la selección y hábitos de las cabras en el consumo de plantas nativas, para determinar cómo favorecen la supervivencia y productividad de la especie, bajo las condiciones de adversidad ambiental que caracterizan a las regiones áridas. Dicho conocimiento permitirá establecer estrategias para el manejo adecuado del agostadero y conocer el efecto que los compuestos del metabolismo secundario de las plantas puedan tener en los procesos reproductivos, nutricionales, sanitarios, así como en los productos derivados de la leche o carne de estos animales.

Biografía del autor/a

Cecilia Carmela Zapata-Campos, Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, carretera Victoria-Mante km 5 s/n, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México, C. P. 87274.

Medico Veterinario Zootecnista, Profesor de tiempo completo, Titular de la materia de ovinos y caprinos. Trabajo de investigación sobre las parasitosis gastrointestinales en ovinos y caprinos y diagnostico de resistencia antihelmintica. Asi tambien, se ha realizao trabajos sobre enfermedades de origen reproductivo en bovinos. Actualmente realizo trabajos de investigación sobre la interacción reproducción y nutrcición

Miguel Ángel Mellado-Bosque, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, Departamento de Nutrición Animal, Saltillo, Coahuila, México.

Realizó sus estudios de doctorado en la Universidad de Cornell, en New York. Previo a sus estudios de doctorado, trabajó como administrador en un rancho ganadero en Tampico, Tamaulipas. También, desarrolló labores docentes y de investigación en el Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza en Turrialba, Costa Rica por 4 años. En este lugar dirigió el campo experimental de este Centro y brindó asesoría y capacitación a ganaderos en todos los países centroamericanos. De 1989 a la fecha es maestro de tiempo completo de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro. En 1995 realizó una estancia de investigación en el Instituto de Investigación Agropecuaria en Nuzilly, Francia. En 2008 llevó a cabo una estancia de un año como profesor visitante en la Universidad de California, Davis. Regularmente imparte cursos y seminarios en la Universidad La Laguna, en las Islas Canarias, España. Acumula 215 artículos publicados en una amplia gama de revistas indizadas en el Journal Citation Report. Esta productividad científica lo ha hecho merecedor del nivel III del Sistema Nacional de Investigadores. Ha pertenecido al Comité consultivo del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología. Ha ofrecido más de 50 pláticas en foros nacionales e internacionales. Ha dirigido a 97 tesis de licenciatura, 46 de maestría y 16 de doctorado. Ha publicado dos libros en la Editorial Trillas, que sirven de libro de texto en algunas Universidades de Latinoamérica. Ha publicado 4 capítulos de libros de editoriales Europeas. En 2005 recibió un reconocimiento del Consejo Cultural Mundial, por el impacto de su trabajo de investigación en el ámbito Internacional. Ha participado en Comités Científicos, Comisiones Dictaminadoras y Revisoras del Sistema Nacional de Investigadores, además de Comités de arbitraje científico de instituciones nacionales e internacionales. Actualmente forma parte del comité editorial de Journals nacionales e internacionales

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2021-01-30

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Biotecnología y Ciencias Agropecuarias